SIJ pain is a condition when SIJ Pain occurs when the structures (bones and ligaments) surrounding the SIJ ligaments are damaged and inflamed causing pain over the posterior aspect of the joint. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is formed between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis, which are connected by strong ligaments. There is relatively little movement around the SI joints. The two joints provide support and stability at the joint and assist in absorbing pressure.
What Causes SIJ Pain?
- Degenerative Changes
Ligaments around the area deteriorate and lose its functional ability due to aging and wear and tear.
- Traumatic Incidents
Trauma such as falling directly onto the buttocks, direct blow to the area and cumulative injuries such as jumping, lifting and running, are amongst the common reasons.
- Pregnancy and Childbirth
SIJ is more prevalent in pregnant woman dt the hormones released during pregnancy which relaxes the sacroiliac ligament to ease birth. The stretching of the ligaments will lead to a more hypermobile SIJ.
Signs and Symptoms of SIJ
The signs and symptoms of SIJ can sometimes mimic the symptoms of other conditions such as sciatica, hip pain or herniated disc; making diagnosis difficult and easily overlooked. Common symptoms include:
- pain in the lower back
- pain in the buttocks, hips, and pelvis
- pain in the groin and thighs
- stiffness or burning sensation on the pelvis
- pain radiating down into the thighs and upper legs
- Prolonged standing and walking (improved when lying down)
- increased pain when standing up from a seated position
- numbness and weakness
- Lying on the side
- Pain on activities such as: Bending forward, stair climbing, hill climbing, running, sit cross-legged
- Lifting heavy objects
- Muscle tightness
The main aim of physiotherapy treatment is to reduce pain and improve mobility. Manual techniques such as joint mobilizations and manipulation will be carried out to improve mobility. Throughout the treatment, exercises will be focused to train the hip and core stabilization muscles progressively to increase motor control and stability of the SIJ. Not forgetting, postural correction and ergonomic advice such as proper lifting technique and ergonomic workstation.